Fedora 7, Ubuntu 8, and later: The git-core package is available through the standard package repositories. Other Linux and BSD environments should be similar, eg, emerge git on Gentoo will install the needed commands and dependencies. If your platform does not package git, you can download the latest stable release from "http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/". Windows users are recommended to install either TortiseGit or Cygwin (the latter includes a bash shell and many other Linux programs).
First, note that you can get documentation for a command such as git log —graph with:
$ man git-log
$ git help log
With the latter command, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see the git-help(1) man page for more information.
You should configure git with your name and preferred email address before doing any operation. The easiest way to do so is:
$ git config --global user.name "Your Name Here" $ git config --global user.email email@example.com
To download a new package from a git repository:
$ git clone https://firstname.lastname@example.org/VCTLabs/vct-web.git
To avoid the username part of the above URL, use a .netrc file to store your login ID, or use an ssh public key on github and the ssh URL:
$ git clone email@example.com:VCTLabs/vct-web.git
To update a package to the latest upstream version ("fast-forward merge"):
$ git pull origin <branch-name>
or more simply, to pull from the default branch/location from which you cloned:
$ git pull
will pull from the origin repository and default branch defined in the package-name/.git/config file.
One way to undo all local modifications:
$ git checkout -f
To check in your own local modifications (e.g. update the web site, do some refactoring, fix a bug, or apply a patch):
$ vi vct-custom.css pelicanconf.py
Don’t forget to run ‘git add’ and ‘git rm’ if adding or removing files.
To check in all local modifications to your local repository:
$ git commit -a -m "added new stylesheet and updated pelican config for enabling plugins"
Undo recent commits
If the commits are local only, then "git reset" is probably appropriate. OTOH, if the commits are already public, ie, they’ve been pushed to a remote repository and potentially cloned by someone else, then "git reset" is most likely not the right answer. That said, if you’re working completely by yourself, then any method is viable (again, depending on what your goals are).
To make one or more commits go away cleanly when working with others, the right tool is almost certainly "git revert". You can specify one commit or a range, and git will make a new commit that exactly reverts the changes made by the specified commit(s). Suppose you wanted to get rid of two commits, and you’ve already made two new commits (on top of the bad ones) that you want to keep. First, get the commit hashes for the two bad commits, then revert them:
$ git log --oneline | head -n 4 498e425 added three new drafts, still need metadata 87b2a14 latest updates to static pages 6dcdf91 added artile template with example rst metadata 6fcd2c0 Add note for ubuntu users to use apt-get version of pip instead $ git revert 6fcd2c0..6dcdf91
Sometimes you have made a few commits, or just pulled a change, and simply want those commits to go away completely:
$ git reset --hard HEAD~2 # erase last 2 commits
This will essentially erase the top two commits, as if you had never made them. DO NOT do this, if you’ve already pushed said commits (at least not without coordination with others who may have pulled those commis). Note that this is quite different from git revert, which applies a reversed patch as an additional commit.
Listing changes in your working dir, in diff format
Display changes since last ‘git add’ or ‘git rm’:
$ git diff
Display changes since last commit:
$ git diff HEAD
Obtain summary of all changes in working dir:
$ git status
List all commits on the current branch, with descriptions:
$ git log
The ‘git log’ option "-p" shows diffs in addition to commit messages. The option "—stat" shows the diffstat.
List all commits to a specific file:
$ git log content/pages/contact.rst
List all local branches (add -a to see remote branches too):
$ git branch
Make desired branch current in working directory:
$ git checkout $branch
Create a new branch from master, and make it current:
$ git checkout -b alternate-theme master
Examine which branch is current:
$ git status
(‘git branch’ also shows you the current branch, using a "*" in front)
Obtain a diff between current branch, and master branch
In most trees with branches, .git/refs/heads/master contains the current ‘vanilla’ upstream tree, for easy diffing and merging. (in trees without branches, ‘master’ simply contains your latest changes). The following is equivalent to git diff HEAD, when used with HEAD branch:
$ git diff master..HEAD
Obtain a list of changes between current branch, and master branch:
$ git log master..HEAD
(this is equivalent to git log, when used with HEAD)
Rather than full changeset descriptions, obtain a one-line summary of each changes:
$ git shortlog master..HEAD
Merging changes from one branch to another
Suppose that you do work on two different branches, and after work on those two branches is complete, you merge the work into master:
$ git checkout master # switch to branch master $ git merge drafts # merge drafts into master $ git merge new-theme # merge new-theme into master
Optimize your repository
git is heavily optimized for fast storage and retrieval on a per-command basis. However, over a long period of time, it can be useful to perform further optimizations, including packing all git objects into single "packfile" for fast retrieval and less wasted disk space. The following:
$ git gc
will optimize your repository. You don’t need to run this frequently — git is quite fast even without it. See the ‘git gc’ man page for more details.
Tagging a particular commit
In many cases, you will want to give interesting or significant commits a name, known as a tag. The Linux kernel uses tags for each kernel version: "v2.6.21", "v2.6.22", etc. For example, to create a new tag after a particular commit:
$ git tag my-tag
This creates a new tag named "my-tag", based on the current commit. You can also make an "annotated" tag, or a GPG-signed tag, so read the man page for more details.
A (larger) good introduction is the Git tutorial
And for even more information on Git, check out the Pro Git book.
This article was originally adapted and expanded from another Git Intro found on the web; I just can’t remember where :/